Techno-Economic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions for Biobased Marine Fuels
Marine shipping is the most energy-efficient form of freight transport. It is the backbone of global trade, responsible for transporting 80 percent of the world’s goods by volume and over 70 percent of global trade by value. Marine shipping sector heavily depends on fossil fuel and is one of the largest consumers of petroleum fuels. Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is a residual of the refinery process which contains many of the undesirable impurities separated from other refinery products and in the main fuel used by the marine shipping sector is primarily heavy fuel oil, 77% in 2013. Other marine fuels include marine gas oil (MGO), marine diesel oil (MDO), intermediate fuel oil (IFO), and marine fuel oil (MFO), and are categorized based on their blending properties.4 The annual global marine fuel consumption is projected to be around 330 million metric tons (87 billion gallons) annually, which is higher than the world’s yearly jet fuel consumption of 220 metric million tons (1.4 billion barrels). The overall demand for marine fuels is expected to double by 2030 due to the increase in global trade.